Fragaria virginiana (L.)

Virginia strawberry


The Basics

Taxonomy: Kingdom - Plantae (plants). Subkingdom - Tracheobionta (vascular plants). Superdivision - Spermatophyta (seed plants). Division - Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants). Class - Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons). Subclass - Rosidae. Order - Rosales. Family - Rosaceae (Rose familly). Genus -Fragaria L. Species - Fragaria virginiana Duchesne.

Ecology: A shade-intolerant. submontane to subalpine. circumpolar forb (transcontinental in North America). Occurs on nitrogen-medium soils within boreal,. temperate, cool semiarid, and cool mesothermal climates. Its occurrence increases with increasing continentality, and decreases with increasing elevation. Frequently inhabits exposed, calcium-rich. mineral soil water­shedding sites. Common in non-forested (grassy) communities, less frequent in open­canopy forests. Characteristic of young-seral forests.


General: Freely stoloniferous, herbaceous, scapose perennial, the stolons, petioles and peduncles greenish and pubescent, the scapes usually shorter than the leaves. Leaves: Leaves trifoliate, the petioles up to 15 cm. long; leaflets obovate to elliptic-obovate, thick, 2-7 cm. long, glabrous, glaucous and blue-green on the upper surface, silky on the lower surface, with coarse, rounded serrations most of the length; leaflets distinctly petiolate, the terminal leaflet with a 2-7 mm. stalk; terminal tooth of leaflets generally shorter than adjacent teeth.Flowers: Inflorescence open, 2-15 flowered; calyx saucer-shaped, silky, with 5 bracteoles 4-7 mm. long, alternate with, and narrower and shorter than the 5 lanceolate-elliptic calyx lobes; petals 5, white, 6-13 mm. long; stamens 20-25; pistils numerous.Fruits: Fruit an achene, up to + immersed in the hemispheric receptacle, which becomes enlarged up to 1 cm. broad, fleshy and red.


The fruit from Frangaria virginiana can be eaten and is very sweet. This species also has medicinal perposed. The whole plant can be boiled and used to treat heart conditions. The leaves can also be used to treat sores and eczema. The root can be boiled to help with dysentery and diarrhea.


Flower reproduction: Frangaria virginiana produces small white flowers that open early May to June. These flowers are pollinated by small bees, syrphid flies, beeflies, and ants. From these flowers Frangaria virginiana produces fruit that is consumed by other species. Sprouting and germination: Frangaria Virginiana spreads by stolons that run along the ground. Then rooting and forming new plants. The germination is greater than 70% in 30 days in fresh fruit. Germination temperature varies per its location. 

Fruit: The fruit is sweet and editable producing 32 seeds per fruit. The seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals.

Species Distribution


E-Flora of British Columbia
In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia []. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

USDA Plants Database
USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
Distribution Map photo credit

Jepson eFlora
Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter 2017. Fragaria virginiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 06, 2017.

Flora of North America
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 19+ vols. New York and Oxford.

Fragaria virginiana
Gould, K., Wood, S., & Smreciu, A. (2013). Fragaria virginiana ssp. glauca: wild strawberry, Virginia strawberry.

Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture
Burke Museum. 2017. Berberis repens [Online]. University of Washington.
Photo credit: 2006 Susan McDougall, 2007 G. D. Carr, 2012 Ray Izumi.