Pinus monophylla

Single-leaf Pinyon

Pinaceae

The Basics

Taxonomy: Kingdom - Plantae (plants). Subkingdom - Tracheobionta (vascular plants). Superdivision - Spermatophyta (seed plants). Division - Coniferophyta (conifers). Class - Pinopsida. Order - Pinales. Family - Pinaceae (pine). Genus -PinusL. Species - Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frém

Ecology: The pinyon-juniper woodland is generally a climax vegetation type throughout its range, reaching climax about 300 years after disturbance, with an ongoing trend toward increased tree density and canopy cover and a decline in understory species over time. Woodlands may also expand into adjacent grass and shrublands over time.Singleleaf pinyon has an extensive lateral root system, giving it the ability to penetrate into open areas between tree canopies and extract water and nutrients. Its ability to invade adjacent shrublands may also be related to the tree's ability to maintain a seasonally stable xylem water potential and thereby to endure drought better than the associated shrub.Pinyons typically grow in association with juniper (Juniperus spp.), with juniper dominating the lower elevations of their range and pinyons the upper. In fully stocked pinyon-juniper stands, understory species comprise a very small portion of the total biomass, though they may be important forage species and the plants most likely to reclaim the site following disturbance. In general, coverage of understory vegetation associated with singleleaf pinyon woodlands varies with geographic area, site quality, and successional stage. Singleleaf pinyon occurs in 3 general regions: the Great Basin, southern California and northern Baja, and parts of Arizona and New Mexico south of the Mogollon Rim.

Identification

Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), Mature singleleaf pinyon is typically a short tree 6-12 m tall, with a rounded to flat-topped crown and multiple, upswept branches due to lack of self-pruning. It may occasionally be multi-stemmed from simultaneous establishment from seed caches. It generally forms open woodlands. Bark is smooth and thin on young trees, forming deep, irregular fissures and ridges with thin scales, and is up to an inch thick with age. The wood is light and soft, not strong or resinous...The seed or "nut" of singleleaf pinyon has a lower fat content than that of Colorado pinyon, giving it a more starchy or mealy taste by comparison.

The needles of singleleaf pinyon are solitary, rigid, and 2.5-3.5 cm long. The sheaths are deciduous. The single needle is unique among pines of the world. Singleleaf pinyon needles are long-lived 5-12 years. Their longevity is considered an extreme expression of "evergreenness," giving the tree the ability to conserve nutrients to take advantage of short favorable conditions within a generally unfavorable period. The allelopathic effects of singleleaf pinyon needle litter on germination and growth of herbaceous plants has been documented, and is attributed to terpene hydrocarbons. These compounds also impede decomposition, are highly flammable, and are readily volatilized by fire.

Threats

Fire effects: Because mature singleleaf pinyon trees are short with thin bark, open crowns, full of long-lived, highly flammable foliage, and do not self-prune their dead branches, individual trees are susceptible to fire...Mature singleleaf pinyon can survive low-severity surface fires but is killed by more severe fires. Most tree seedlings are killed by fire, but cached seeds may survive...The effectiveness of tree kill depends on fire severity, which is largely determined by the amount of grass that carries the fire...Singleleaf pinyon occurs in many xeric sites with infertile, shallow, rocky soils, where fires are infrequent and unpredictable and depend on exceptional rainfall years that lead to herbaceous growth sufficient to carry fire.

Pests and pathogens: Pinyon mice, deer mice, woodrats, squirrels, chipmunks, deer, black bears, and desert bighorn sheep eat singleleaf pinyon seeds, as do scrub, Steller's, and pinyon jays and Clark's nutcrackers. Many of these animals cache seeds for winter use and are critical for regeneration of singleleaf pinyon...The inner bark is a major food of porcupines, and is also eaten by squirrels, raccoons, rabbits, ringtails, coyotes, and gray foxes, as well as the larvae of the mountain pine beetle and the fungus causing pinyon blister rust. Limbs are attacked by pinyon dwarf-mistletoe (Arceuthobium divaricatum). The pitch is a staple food of pitch midges and is used by Dianthidium bees to build their nests.

Reproduction

Flowering and Fruiting - Pacific silver fir is monoecious; self-fertilization is possible because times of pollen dispersal and seed cone receptivity overlap on the same tree. When receptive to pollination, the seed cones appear purple, erect, and 8 to 16 cm tall on the upper surfaces of 1-year-old branches in the upper parts of tree crowns. Just before pollination, the pollen cones appear red, pendent, and usually abundant on the lower surfaces of the branches somewhat lower on the crowns than the seed cones. Seeds are fully mature in late August, and dissemination begins in mid-September- one of the earliest dispersal times for Pacific Northwest conifers.

Seed Production and Dissemination - Reproduction in singleleaf pinyon is by seed and does not occur naturally by vegetative means. It is monoecious and wind pollinated. Cone and seed development require 3 seasons and about 26 months. Strobili or cone primordia are initiated the growing season prior to their appearance the following spring, undergoing a period of dormancy through the winter prior to opening. Pollen release is controlled by local conditions. Once pollinated, growth of the pollen tube undergoes another winter dormancy period prior to fertilization.

After fertilization, seeds develop rapidly, mature, and disperse about 6 months later, the 2nd autumn after pollination. With so much time between so many stages, cone and seed crops are exposed to a number of variables that affect the seed crop, such as weather, predation, and internal competition for resources between the previous and current year's cones; therefore, seed production is highly variable from tree to tree, year to year, and place to place.

Seedling Development - Pacific silver fir germinates in the spring after overwintering under snow. Cool, moist habitats are best for germination, but full sunlight produces maximum subsequent growth. Seedlings can also grow under dense shade; seedlings 8 to 12 years old and about 10 cm tall can frequently be found beneath older, closed forest canopies. Seedlings that survive continue to grow very slowly, existing as advance regeneration that can be 65 to 110 years old and only 45 to 200 cm tall. When existing as advance regeneration, Pacific silver fir has flat-topped crowns caused by slow height growth relative to lateral branch growth.

Species Distribution

Citation

USDA Plants Database
USDA, NRCS. 2016. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

USFS Plant Database
Habeck, R. J. 1992. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

Flora of North America
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 19+ vols. New York and Oxford.

The Jepson Herbarium
The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California. B.G. Baldwin, D.H. Goldman, D.J. Keil, R. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti, and D.H. Wilken [editors]. 2012. 2nd edition, thoroughly revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA..